Moses Havini: Yumi Yet
This paper will look at the issues of ownership and the protection of intellectual property of traditional art and culture. I will address issues surrounding the historical acquisition and / or lifting of huge volumes of traditional art and treasures within the last two hundred years by various collectors (including traders, colonial officials, missionaries and private collectors). Access to own traditional art and artifacts now preserved in western museums is of critical concern to indigenous peoples. Many cultures that are threatened with survival today are totally unaware of where and how to access significant collections. Westernisation has both eroded our culture, yet stored examples in inaccessible places. Indigenous peoples of the world are wondering what has happened to collections in storage - often never on display. Our attempt with the 'Yumi Yet' exhibition to examine present Bougainville culture today in the light of the 'never before' exhibited Bougainville art from the Australian Museum raises a historical discussion between past and present. We wish to open up a meaningful dialogue between institutions and various cultural bodies and peoples to facilitate the future return of significant artworks to their rightful owners. University bodies such as UMAC and ICOM and the curators of university and public collections could become vital facilitators in the establishment of such dialogues and negotiations. Under what safeguards and conditions should these collections be managed and /or returned? From an indigenous perspective, arguments emerge within countries as to who are the rightful owners and custodians for the return of such treasures. Is it for the state or cultural bodies within the indigenous culture to take on the responsibility for the preservation, acculturation and future use of the collections, or will the works be claimed by clans and tribes or individuals? Whilst traditional societies are rich in art and culture, knowledge of preservation and curatorial skills lag behind western institutions. For the preservation and development of art and culture now and in the future, how can knowledge transfer from more advanced countries be made accessible to indigenous peoples such as Bougainville?

Steven de Clercq: The Dutch approach, or how to achieve a second life for abandoned geological collections.
The life-cycle of the geological collections from the Dutch universities is described against the background of the development of education and research. The shift in both education and research from the field to the laboratory, combined with massive reorganisations, led to many orphaned collections, in total some 3 million objects. Sponsored by the government, the five old universities engaged in a collaborative action to tackle this problem with the aim to improve the over-all quality and accessibility of the collections, as well as to intensify their present and future use through selection, de-accession, collection mobility, or even disposal. Some experiences, pitfalls and recommendations will be discussed.

Andrew Simpson: The plight of geological collections in the Australian University sector
The 1975 "Piggott" report identified the areas of geology and anthropology as being the two most likely to develop collections in Australian Universities. Since then Australia has seen a relative decline of the traditional resource-based economy and a lessening demand for geology graduates. Over the last decade, but particularly since 1996, the restructuring of the tertiary education sector has meant that University based collections in areas that do not attract a significant student load, such as geology, are in danger because of a lack of adequate resources for their effective management. Staff levels are an indicator of resources available for management of collections. The 1998 "Transforming Cinderella Collections" report showed some 8 staff Australia-wide responsible for just over 1 million specimens. A mere four years from that time and these staff numbers are now much reduced. Many large collections have no staff and are essentially shut away. Whilst the large number of specimens required for undergraduate teaching do not require advanced information management systems, those that result from basic research do. Without adequate management systems and strategies, the knowledge base of the earth sciences in Australia is at risk.

Fausto Pugnaloni: The future of the University Museums System in Italy
The paper will discuss the recent proceedings of the Italian network of University Museums, starting with the first results of the census and data-base of the existing structures and collections. It will present the proposals of gathering in a cultural foundation and focusing the possible forms of inter-university cooperation aimed to create strong scientific poles of the territorial network in order to share knowledge and equipments and find easier access to financial support. The recent european and international events, conferences and meetings on the cultural architectural heritage, will give the chance to introduce the project of creating an Italian 'pole' of the architectural and drawings university collections.

Michael Mares: Behind the Rain, The Story of a Museum
Behind the Rain, The Story of a Museum tells the dramatic story of the development of the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, from its founding as a "cabinet of curiosities" in Oklahoma Territory in 1899 to the dedication of a state-of-the-art building in 2000. For most its history the museum was housed in some of the worst buildings in the nation. Working against almost insurmountable odds, the director, staff, and the people of Oklahoma labored 17 years to raise funds for a new museum in one of the nation's poorest states. Their efforts culminated in the construction of one of the finest university natural history museums in the country.

Cornelia Weber: A Renaissance of German University Collections
German universities host many remarkable collections - some more of local interest, some of immense academic value. Recently, the university collections have received considerable interest both by academia and by the broad public, as highlighted, e.g., by well-attended exhibitions and well-funded projects for their exploitation. A central role in this process is played by the so-called new media, which provide new ways to access collections as resources for research and teaching worldwide. The paper presents the first overview of German university collections and introduces various projects involving digital media.

Nicholas Hardwick: Curating a Virtual Museum: the collection of the Australian Institute of Archaeology, Melbourne
The Institute has a significant antiquities collection for the study of the Bible, with strengths in objects from the Near East, Egypt, Cyprus, classical antiquities from the eastern Mediterranean and coins. A Virtual Museum is being prepared and a website will have images of 600 objects online later this year. This paper will discuss the digital photography of the collection, including still and video images of every object, examples of which will be shown during the presentation.

Marta Lourenco: A Contribution to the History of University Museums and Collections in Europe
The recent history of museums, from the wunderkammer to 16th and 17th century private collecting, is well-documented. In contrast, the pre-history of university museums remains largely unstudied. This is an important task: if the history and singularity of university museums and collections remain unknown, their scientific and social roles will remain undervalued, their identity will remain in crisis and their heritage will be at risk. This communication is a brief contribution to that history. Five historical landmarks that shaped the diversity and complexity of contemporary university museums and collections will be presented - the teaching collection, the teaching museum, the scholar collection, the research collection and the university museum - followed by some notes regarding developments during the 20th century.

Mamoru Adachi: University Museums In Japan
University museums were formally established in Japan at several national universities in 1996, following a report by the Science Council. The University of Tokyo Museum was the first to receive official status in 1996, although its organization and building were established as long ago as 1965. At present, there are nine university museums in Japan. Each has a staff of about five to ten researchers and between them they hold more than two million specimens, mainly related to natural history. The paper will summarize the history and present status of univerity museums in Japan. It will also outline future plans for the Nagoya University Museum.

Carol Mayer: University Museums: Distinct Sites Of Intersection For Diverse Communities
In her article "The Politics of exhibiting Culture: Legacies and Possibilities" Shelley Ruth Butler refers to "a problematic dichotomy that exists in museum literature between critical and optimistic perspectives on exhibiting culture" (2000:74). Critical museology, she says, raises questions about the relationship between existing museum practice and the history of a "politics of domination" that has underpinned how western museums exhibit non-western cultures, the "other." This has resulted in the re-evaluation of motivations that have driven the collecting, classifying, and displaying of material culture. Optimistic museology, on the other hand, focuses "on the role of museums in public education and in facilitating conversation between diverse and multi-cultural citizens" (2000:74). The intent of this paper is to discuss how a university museum proved to be the appropriate site of intersection for these two perspectives. I will focus specifically on our work with diverse communities on the development of an exhibition and programming about Islam and Muslim life.

Peter Tirrell: Looking for a Superhero: the search for a new museum director
Directors of university museums are in charge of important and highly complex institutions that have a mission for research, teaching, collection, informal education, exhibition and dissemination of information. The directors have so many responsibilities and expectations that they take on the role of a Superhero. Superheroes must be leaders that are powerful, intelligent, highly skilled, and opportunistic. Museums need these qualities in a director. However, each superhero has one or two special abilities that set him or her apart. Museums that are searching for a new director also must find a new director that has met the specific challenges faced by their museums.

Ing-Marie Munktell: Comparing and contrasting university museums and general museums
During my 18 years working in different museums in Sweden I had the opportunity to meet some enthusiastic and real good, networking museum leaders. They had all in common a desire to meet people from all levels of the community. They also had a profound insight in how important networking is for the success and development of the museum. After 2.5 years as Director of the University museum in Uppsala, Museum Gustavianum, I have met enthusiastic university-museum leaders working hard, but with other premises, sometimes in benefit of the museum, sometimes not. Through interviews with 4 experienced museum leaders (2 from each side) looking upon "Advocacy and Leadership" I hope to raise a fruitful discussion about how we shall develop the best sides of leadership.

Aldona Jonaitis: University museums - convincing the public of the value of scientific collections
One of the greatest challenges for university museums is to convince the public, the government, and private donors of the value of scientific collections. Too many visitors experience museum collections as simply vast quantities of nearly identical bird skins, mammal bones, pressed plants, without understanding why they are there and what larger function they serve. To communicate the importance of collections requires an ability to connect museum research with the interests of the public, government or donors, something which at times requires considerable imagination.

Jenny Horder: Promoting Health through Public Programs in University Medical Museums
Pathology Museums worldwide are in danger. This paper explores the extent and the reasons for this threat to these valuable teaching resources - day by day becoming historical collections. Should they now be classified as heritage material? What factors might contribute to their survival? How has their role changed? How effective and appropriate might they be as a resource in delivering public health programs and how can this be achieved? How can meaning and interpretation of this type of material be conveyed to those undertaking community outreach? Shifting the focus of medical museums and creating accessibility to a broad audience may allow these museums to be promoted more widely as the educational treasures they are.

Kati Heinamies: New forms of co-operation between the Helsinki University Museum and students
The small museum collections of the University of Helsinki will be transferred to excellent new facilities right in the heart of the city. Some of these collections specialise in the over 360-year history of the University and in the history of Finnish science, while others are concerned with the history of medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, geology, and textiles, clothing and craft design. Previously, the collections were open only by appointment, but in autumn 2003, they will be opened to the general public. The new museum will devote much effort to co-operation with students. The University will continue to develop its museum studies module, and in the future, students may be able to complete their practical training periods at the University Museum. The City of Helsinki and the University of Helsinki engaged in similar co-operation in 2001 when Helsinki was one of the European Cities of Culture; the co-operation provided valuable experience. At the time, history students participated closely in generating and implementing ideas for exhibitions and related publications, and in organising historical walking tours on University campuses and theme walks in various parts of the city.

Cornelia Weber: The Making of an Exhibition: Theatrum Naturae et Artis.

Angela Sim: Designing, Building & Launching A Home for 3 Art Collections
The presentation/paper proposes to share our recent experience in Singapore in the design, building and launch of a purpose-built university museum complex to house four exhibition galleries and other facilities of NUS Museums, National University of Singapore. It will include a segment on the logistics and strategy of the move and relocation of close to 10,000 objects from various points of location on-campus. This exercise was preceded, amongst other things, by the conservation of all works of textile, paper, wood and paintings. The presentation will take into account not just curatorial but management, strategic, administrative, operational, education and outreach considerations.

Nargis Rashid: The Departmental Museums at the Unversity Of Karachi: Exposure and Exploitation
Museums are the centre of learning; it plays a significant role in the projection of cultural heritage and creating awareness among the masses. At the University of Karachi, academicians felt the need of a Museum in several departments, when it was established in 1953 at its present location. For which funds and material were collected to set the educational museums to help the students for quick understanding. At present the museums at Botany, Geology, Geography, General History, Sociology, and Zoology Departments are in dormant position. There are several reasons such as Organizational negligence, administrative negligence, lack of funds, lack of year on year upgrading and lack of proper program and set-up to attract students. The aim of this paper is to bring out the causes of exploitation and look for programs to give proper exposure.

Rhonda Davis: Palæographia: An exhibition blending science and art
The exhibition, Palæographia, was developed for the First International Palaeontological Congress (IPC2002). It consisted of original Australian fossil specimens juxtaposed with scientific illustrations and interpretative artworks in a variety of media. It illustrated Australia's palaeontological heritage. The linkage between science and art triggered most of the positive comments by visitors. The exhibition was popular with families and school groups and provided an opportunity to develop education programs that incorporated both art and science elements. The exhibition was therefore a mechanisms for introducing a new audience to the gallery experience. An exhibition like this could only develop in a University. The complex and diverse nature of its intellectual base allows a fertile collaboration between groups that rarely work together elsewhere. It was also a good example of how a University Gallery can promote the endeavours of its scientists to a broader audience.

Karin Sowada: Sir Charles Nicholson and the Legacy of a Benefactor
In 1860, the University of Sydney received from Sir Charles Nicholson perhaps one of the most significant collections ever received by a university in Australia. His donation of ancient Egyptian artefacts became the basis of the Nicholson Museum, now the country's most important collection of ancient art and artefacts from the Eastern Mediterranean. The objects were purchased by Nicholson in Egypt, whose trips there belong to the long tradition of 19th century European scholar-travellers. Moreover, research into type of artefacts in Nicholson's donation reveals that he attempted to purchase a collection of objects representative of ancient Egyptian culture, specifically for donation to the University. While his stated desire was to give the colony of New South Wales an idea of its roots in western civilisation, it also reflected the prevailing colonial view of Australia as a country without a history before white settlement.

Professor Adam Shoemaker: The Role for University Museums in Pedagogy, Heritage and Identity

Bernice Murphy: University collections in the public domain with reference to the Power Collection and the University of Sydney

Ms Peni Theologi-Gouti: Planning activities in a new university museum

Dr Sue-Anne Wallace: University museums in a broader cultural context

Eduardo Ramirez: A Digital Inventorying for our Museum Collections: Conservation in the Digital Age
The increased awareness of biodiversity preservation has increased the role of biological collections in museums giving an urgency of inventory work. We would like to propose new multimedia procedures and methods aimed to assist museums world-wide with their heritage inventorying work. In this paper is presented a proposal for building the digital image records for a multimedia database that uses multidimensional digital imaging elements such as video, 3D confocal microscopy reconstructions, virtual-reality still sequences from scanning electron microscopy and other imaging elements to assist taxonomists and curators in their inventory tasks in our museums. Examples presented here illustrate the proposed digital records of a natural heritage collection and can be downloaded from a FTP site. Digital technologies and methods presented here have facilitated the public dissemination of the vast amount of collections stored in museums world-wide.